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2021 WINNING YAF ESSAY: MUHAMMAD ZAKI MAARIF FIRMAN

Pengembangan Kawasan Sagu Technopark Kota Palopo Melalui Pendekatan Circular Agriculture

Arranged by:
Muhammad Zaki Maarif Firman
(Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan, IPB University)

Perubahan iklim secara global merupakan permasalahan kolektif yang perlu ditangani secara serius. Fenomena perubahan iklim telah mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidup manusia di berbagai sektor termasuk produksi pangan. Aktivitas pertanian sangat bergantung pada kondisi alam dan iklim seperti ketersediaan air dan kualitas tanah (Ryabchenko et al. 2017, h. 301). Perubahan iklim yang cenderung ke arah negatif menyebabkan produksi tanaman penyedia karbohidrat yang mengandalkan panen musiman, seperti beras dan jagung, turut mengalami penurunan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan perhatian serius terhadap sumber karbohidrat alternatif selain dari biji-bijian, seperti sagu (Hariyanto 2011, h. 144).

Sagu (Metroxylon spp) merupakan tumbuhan keluarga palmae yang banyak tumbuh di daerah rawa, gambut dan sekitar sumber air. Berdasarkan sifat tanah, air, mikro iklim dan spesies vegetasi habitatnya, sagu termasuk tanaman yang memiliki daya adaptasi tinggi (Botanri et al. 2011, h. 136).  Pemanfaatan sagu sebagai makanan pokok dapat dijumpai di berbagai daerah seperti Maluku, Papua dan sebagian Sulawesi (Fatah, Rahmi, & Biantary 2015, h. 159).

Kota Palopo merupakan salah satu sentra produksi sagu di Sulawesi Selatan. Namun, akhir-akhir ini konsumsi sagu sebagai makanan pokok telah mengalami penurunan drastis. Banyak petani sagu yang mengkonversi lahannya menjadi sawah akibat faktor ekonomi. Masa panen yang lama, sekitar 8-10 tahun, menjadikan komoditas sagu dianggap kurang menguntungkan bagi petani (Alfons dan Rivaie 2011, h. 82). Upaya-upaya meningkatkan kembali produksi dan konsumsi sagu telah banyak dilakukan. Salah satunya melalui pendirian Sagu Technopark kota Palopo.

Sagu Technopark merupakan kawasan yang dikembangkan oleh tim Sago Science and Technopark Universitas Hasanuddin dengan melibatkan unsur pemerintahan, yakni Balitbangda dan Bappeda Kota Palopo serta Professor Hirsohi Ehara dari International Cooperation Center for Agricultural Education (ICCAE) Nagoya University – Japan sebagai JICA Expert (Mulyadi et al. 2017). Kawasan ini dihadirkan untuk mendorong pendidikan, penelitian, pengkajian dan pengembangan mengenai komoditas sagu serta memberi perlindungan terhadap keanekaragaman hayati beserta ekosistemnya (Haeruddin, H 2018 h. 5). Sayangnya, sejak diinisiasi pada tahun 2017, inovasi ini masih belum memberikan hasil optimal terutama bagi masyarakat sekitar yang secara langsung mengurusi kawasan tersebut. Potensi lahan yang tersedia belum diberdayakan dengan baik.

 

Berdasarkan pengamatan penulis pada saat mengunjungi kawasan tersebut, kondisi Sagu Technopark masih jauh dari yang diharapkan. Deretan pohon-pohon sagu masih terhitung sedikit dibandingkan luas lahan yang tersedia. Akses masuk masih berupa jalan setapak kecil sepanjang kurang-lebih 3 kilometer. Bagian belakang dari kawasan ini berupa lahan kosong yang diisi beberapa sapi ternak. Untuk pengolahan sagu, terdapat bangunan kecil berisi wadah ekstraksi sagu yang masih sangat sederhana. Di samping itu, terdapat permasalahan lingkungan di sekitar kawasan ini, yaitu mudah mengalami banjir saat curah hujan sedang tinggi.

Dokumentasi penulis saat mengunjungi kawasan Sagu Technopark Kota Palopo

Ketersediaan lahan Sagu Technopark dapat dikembangkan menjadi model perkebunan yang menguntungkan secara ekonomi dan tetap memperhatikan aspek keberlanjutan. Hal tersebut dapat terwujud melalui pendekatan circular agriculture (CA). CA merupakan sistem produksi pertanian yang berupaya meminimalisir input eksternal (seperti pupuk) dan produk sampingan atau limbah. Upaya tersebut dilakukan dengan melakukan diversifikasi produk, penggunaan bioenergi, dan membentuk aliran rantai pasok sirkular (Ryabchenko et al. 2017, h. 302).

Model CA pada perkebunan sagu dapat diterapkan dengan menghadirkan sumber daya selain tanaman sagu serta mengonversi setiap potensi limbah dari sagu menjadi produk yang bernilai. Sejak dahulu, sagu dikenal masyarakat sebagai tanaman yang tidak hanya bermanfaat sebagai pangan, tetapi juga memiliki berbagai fungsi lainnya.

Berbagai bagian tumbuhan sagu dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai obat-obatan, misalnya untuk penyakit cacar air (dengan cara mengoleskan sagu yang telah dikeringkan ke tubuh), asam urat (dengan cara meminum rebusan akar yang telah dididihkan), dan biri-biri (dengan cara meminum sagu yang belum matang). Tanaman sagu juga bisa digunakan untuk membangun rumah : batang luar sebagai lantai dan pagar, pelepah sebagai dinding, kulit pelepah sebagai plafon, lendir (lamberrok) sebagai lem, dan daun sebagai atap (Syahdima et al. 2013, h. 22).

Limbah sagu (sago dregs) dapat mengandung karbohidrat yang tinggi dan dapat dikonversi menjadi bioetanol untuk memenuhi kebutuhan rumah tangga (Jonatan et al. 2017). Lees sagu, limbah yang berasal dari pengolahan tepung sagu, dapat diolah menjadi pakan ternak (Tiro, B, Beding, P & Baliadi, Y 2017, h. 2).

 

Berbagai potensi yang dimiliki tanaman sagu tersebut dapat dioptimalkan dengan baik jika pembudidayaan sagu disertai dengan aktivitas lain yang dilakukan secara paralel, seperti peternakan sapi, penanaman hortikultura, pengembangan energi alternatif dan pendirian bangunan-bangunan bagi pengunjung dan masyarakat. Pengembangan Sagu Technopark dengan pendekatan circular agriculture merupakan langkah konkret yang dapat ditempuh dalam mewujudkan hal tersebut. Proyek ini juga dapat menjadi percontohan bagi masyarakat untuk menerapkan perkebunan sagu berkelanjutan di lahan milik masing-masing. Berikut merupakan contoh desain pengembangan kawasan Sagu Technopark:

Gambar 2. Desain perkebunan sagu sirkular untuk kawasan Sagu Technopark (Keterangan : 1. Perkebunan sagu, 2. Laboratorium khusus pengembangan energi alternatif, 3. Peternakan sapi, 4. Area penanaman hortikultura, 5. Bangunan untuk pengunjung, dan 6. Akses jalan masuk)

Areal perkebunan sagu telah mencakup aktivitas pasca panen seperti ekstraksi sagu untuk menghasilkan aci sagu. Penampungan dan pengemasan aci sagu memanfaatkan bagian tanaman sagu lainnya, yaitu pelepah dan daun. Aci sagu merupakan produk utama perkebunan sagu yang dapat diolah menjadi berbagai jenis makanan.

Limbah yang dihasilkan dari aktivitas produksi aci sagu kemudian dikonversi menjadi pakan untuk peternakan sapi dan bahan bioetanol. Konversi limbah penting untuk dilakukan karena jumlah limbah sagu terhitung tinggi. Rata-rata proses pengolahan sagu menghasilkan aci sagu dan limbah sagu dengan perbandingan 1:6 atau sekitar 1320 kg limbah/pohon (Tiro, B, Beding, P & Baliadi, Y 2017, h. 2). Limbah sagu biasanya dibuang ke sungai sehingga menimbulkan dampak pencemaran lingkungan. Limbah sagu sebagian besar tersusun dari selulosa, hemiselulosa dan lignin yang dapat dikonversi menjadi pakan ternak dan bioethanol (Polii, F 2016, h.12). Bioetanol yang dihasilkan dapat digunakan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan energi di kawasan tersebut serta pemukiman-pemukiman masyarakat sekitar.

Salah satu keluhan yang banyak disampaikan oleh petani sagu adalah masa panennya yang lama sehingga hanya sedikit keuntungan yang dapat diraup. Permasalahan ini dapat diatasi dengan penanaman hortikultura yang banyak dijumpai di Kota Palopo menurut laporan Badan Pusat Statistik pada 2021, yaitu bawang merah, bawang putih, cabai, tomat, kangkung, kubis dan bayam. Modal penanaman hortikultura dapat ditekan dengan memanfaatkan kotoran ternak sapi sebagai pupuk. Tanaman hortikultura memiliki masa panen yang jauh lebih cepat daripada sagu sehingga dapat menjadi sumber keuntungan ekonomi bagi petani. Selain itu, aktivitas penggemukan sapi juga dapat menjadi sumber pemasukan lainnya.   

Selain pusat pendidikan, Sagu Technopark Kota Palopo juga diharapkan dapat menjadi tempat hiburan bagi masyarakat (Mulyadi et al. 2017). Konsep ekowisata memiliki daya tarik bagi masyarakat belakangan ini. Melalui pendekatan circular agriculture, Sagu Technopark dapat dikembangkan menjadi kawasan ekowisata yang terbuka bagi umum. Fasilitas-fasilitas yang disediakan untuk pengunjung dapat dibangun menggunakan bagian tanaman sagu, seperti batang, daun dan pelepah pohon sagu sehingga menghemat ongkos pembangunan.

Pengembangan Sagu Technopark dengan pendekatan circular agriculture dapat memberikan dampak positif terhadap kehidupan masyarakat terutama di sektor perekonomian. Model circular agriculture menambahkan sumber pendapatan dan membuka lapangan kerja bagi masyarakat sekitar. Model ini juga dapat dicontoh oleh petani sagu lainnya dalam memberdayakan lahan yang dimiliki. Pengelolaan perkebunan sagu yang baik akan meningkatkan gairah generasi muda untuk kembali ke desa dan mengembangkan sagu sebagai potensi lokal. Industri-industri pengolahan sagu di sektor hilir juga mendapatkan keuntungan dari hasil panen yang baik dan berkelanjutan. Lebih jauh lagi, proyek ini akan berkontribusi dalam perbaikan lingkungan ketahanan pangan di tengah ancaman perubahan iklim.

Perubahan iklim, hilangnya biodiversitas, kelangkaan sumberdaya, dan emisi gas rumah kaca merupakan tantangan-tantangan yang harus kita hadapi saat ini. Perbaikan sistem yang telah ada menjadi suatu keharusan untuk menjaga keberlangsungan alam. Meminimalisir input non-esensial dan penggunaan sumber daya yang tidak terbarukan, mengolah kembali limbah, serta menjaga kesehatan tanah merupakan contoh prinsip-prinsip yang perlu diimplementasikan untuk mewujudkan kegiatan produksi pangan yang lebih baik (Dagevos, H & Lauwere C 2021, h. 1). Perbaikan harus dilakukan mulai dari unit terkecil, yaitu petani itu sendiri.

Circular agriculture sebagai inovasi perbaikan sistem produksi pangan hanya dapat terwujud jika siklus aliran hasil pertanian dibuat sedekat dan setertutup mungkin (Dagevos, H & Lauwere C 2021, h. 9). Hal itulah yang coba dicapai dalam pengembangan kawasan Sagu Technopark. Setiap aktivitas di kawasan tersebut akan saling terintegrasi satu sama lain menghasilkan siklus yang mendatangkan keuntungan ekonomi.   

Perkebunan sagu berkelanjutan yang dijalankan berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip circular agriculture akan mendatangkan berbagai manfaat, seperti merawat tanah, mengurangi penggunaan energi tak terbarukan, berkontribusi terhadap perekonomian masyarakat sekitar, dan tentunya ikut melestarikan alam.

Gagasan yang baik memerlukan implementasi yang baik. Dalam konteks pengembangan kawasan Sagu Technopark, diperlukan dukungan dari pihak pemerintah dan akademisi dalam mengakselerasi pengembangan kawasan yang tetap berada di koridor regulasi dan keilmiahan. Pemeran utamanya tentu saja petani sagu dan komunitas masyarakat sekitar, terutama generasi-generasi muda yang kaya akan inovasi dan semangat dalam mewujudkan masyarakat yang sejahtera dari segi ekonomi dan alam yang lestari.

REFERENCES

Alfons, J & Rivaie A 2011, ‘Sagu mendukung ketahanan pangan dalam menghadapi dampak perubahan iklim’, Perspektif, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 81-91.

Badan Pusat Statistik 2021, Kota Palopo dalam Angka 2021, BPS Kota Palopo, Palopo.

Botanri, S, Setiadi, D, Guhardja, E, Qayim, I & Prasetyo, L 2011, ‘Studi ekologi tumbuhan sagu (Metroxylon spp) dalam komunitas alam di Pulau Seram, Maluku’, Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 135-145.

Fatah, A, Rahmi, A, & Biantary, M, 2015, ‘Tinjauan potensi tanaman sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb) sebagai komoditas unggulan di Kabupaten Paser’, Media Sains, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1587-167.

Haeruddin, H 2018, ‘Karakteristik hidrologi, sifat kimia tanah dan morfologi sagu pada area renvana technopark sagu Kota Palopo, skripsi SP, Universitas Hasanuddin.

Hariyanto, B 2011, ‘Manfaat tanaman sagu (Metroxylon sp) dalam penyediaan pangan dan dalam pengendalian kualitas lingkungan’, Jurnal Teknologi Lingkungan, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 143-152.

Jonatan, N, Ekayuliana, A, Dhiputra I  & Nugroho Y 2017,’The utilization of metroxylon sago (rottb.) dregs for low bioethanol as fuel households needs in Papua Province Indonesia’, International Conference on Natural Resources and Life Sciences : Conference Proceedings, Universitas Surabaya, Surabaya.

Mulyadi, R, Rampisala, D, As’ad, S, Taufiqurrahman, M, Sjahril, R, Makkarennu, Nur, A, Ratnasari, D, Maruddin, R & Metaragakusuma, A, 2017, ‘Studi awal pengembangan sainsteknopark sagu di Tana Luwu’, Temu ilmiah ikatan peneliti lingkungan binaan Indonesia (IPLBI) : prosiding seminar, Universitas Malikussaleh, Lhokseumawe.

Polii, F 2016,’Penelitian pembuatan etanol dari serat/ampas sagu’, Jurnal Penelitian Teknologi Industri, vol. 8, no.1, pp. 11-22.

Ryabchenko, O, Golub, G, Turcekova, N,  Adamickova, I  & Zapototsky, S 2017, ‘Sustainable business modeling of circular agriculture production : case study of circular bioeconomy’, Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 301-310.

Syahdima, Yuniati, E & Pitopang, R 2013,’Kajian etnobotani tumbuhan sagu (Metroxylon spp. Arecaceae) pada masyarakat Desa Radda Kecamatan Baebunta Kabupaten Luwu Utara Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan’, Biocelebes, vol. 7, no. 1, h. 17-26.

Tiro, B, Beding, P & Baliadi, Y 2017,’The utilization of sago waste as cattle feed’,  IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science.

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