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Agroferestry: Hubungan Komensalisme Antara Manusia Dengan Alam

Hampir semua lahan di Indonesia pada awalnya merupakan ‘hutan alam’ yang secara berangsur dialih-fungsikan oleh manusia menjadi berbagai bentuk penggunaan lahan lain. Alih fungsi lahan terjadi sejak lama, selama tahun 1980-an terjadi alih-guna lahan hutan seluas 15,4 juta ha/tahun di seluruh dunia (FAO 1993).

Hutan hujan tropis menyimpan lebih dari 80% spesies makhluk hidup yang membentuk hubungan yang sangat kompleks. Hutan menyediakan sumber daya alam yang melimpah, baik itu berupa flora, fauna maupun mineral. Hutan juga berfungsi sebagai cadangan karbon yang mana C disimpan dalam bentuk biomassa vegetasinya.

Pertumbuhan jumlah penduduk yang terus meningkat harus diimbangi dengan produksi bahan kebutuhan pokok seperti sandang pangan dan papan. Namun demikian upaya pemenuhan kebutuhan pokok tersebut cenderung dilakukan dengan penebangan hutan secara besar-besaran serta alih fungsi hutan sebagai lahan pertanian. Dilain sisi hutan yang dikonversikan menjadi lahan pertanian merupakan sumber oksigen yang merupakan kebutuhan paling dasar setiap makhluk bernyawa termasuk manusia. Untuk mengkompromikan hal tersebut dapat dilakukan dengan mengintegrasikan tegakan hutan yang tetap dijaga sesuai fungsinya dengan kegiatan pertanian di dalamnya (Agroforestry).

Pencapaian sasaran peningkatan produksi pangan dapat dilakukan dengan pola intensifikasi melalui peningkatan teknologi budidaya dan ekstensifikasi yang antara lain dapat dilakukan melalui perluasan areal pertanian di lahan hutan dengan sistem agroforestry (Henny, 2016). Agroforestry adalah suatu sistem penggunaan lahan dimana pada lahan yang sama ditanam secara bersama-sama tegakan hutan dan tanaman pertanian. Manfaat yang diperoleh dari agroforestry adalah meningkatnya produksi pertanian tanpa mengganggu fungsi hutan. Hutan terus memberikan manfaatnya kepada kita (manusia) tanpa meminta imbalan atas itu semua. Berapa banyak uang yang dikeluarkan tiap harinya jika oksigen harus dibeli? Kita setiap waktu memetik manfaat dari hutan yang tidak pernah kita tanam (yang mana dalam ilmu biologi hubungan tersebut disebut simbiosis komensalisme). Jadi, marilah jaga hutan melalui sistem agroforestri.

Sumber Referensi : 
Mayrowani Henny. 2016. Pengembangan Agroforestry Untuk Mendukung Ketahanan Pangan Dan Pemberdayaan Petani Sekitar Hutan. Bogor: Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian.
Widianto. 2003. FUNGSI DAN PERAN AGROFORESTRI. Bogor: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).

Penulis :

Syahrul Efendi Sudarsono

(IAAS LC  Universitas Mataram)


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